Tag Archive for: dive site

The wreck of “M/V Vettor Pisani” (+1942) off Lepeda beach in Kefalonia
On 24 July 1942, the Italian motor  vessel “M/V Vettor Pisani” (built in 1939, tonnage 6,339, length 137.5m) departed from Taranto bound for Tobruk and sailing off Cape Gherogombo, the southwestern point of Kefalonia as part of a convoy, accompanied by torpedo boats “Antares” and “Calliope” and escort destroyer “Orsa”, was attacked by 6 British aircraft position 10 miles 240 degrees from said Cape 38 05N, 20 12E. See the history of the air raid here: http://aviationarchaeology.gr/?p=2249
There was an explosion, smoke and red flame.. the hit was at hold number 2 where fuel was transported in barrels and a violent fire broke out in the bow section. The severely damaged ship was towed by the “Orsa” connected by the stern, against the wind to prevent the fire from spreading to the stern section that had survived unscathed so far. Despite the efforts it was impossible to reach Argostoli harbor and in order to avoid sinking it ran aground in the shallows on the western shores of the Argostoli Gulf, specifically 1 km south of Lixouri town (pic. 1,2). It stayed ablaze until next day while a new airstrike with bombs and strafing caused even more damage. On 27 July its recovery and repair was deemed pointless and declared total loss.
Later that year, while the ship was stranded and in order to recover as much of the cargo as possible, dynamite was used to retrieve whatever could be salvaged. In photos taken from the land but also in aerial photographs of the year 1945 (Hellenic Geographical Service) the ship appears stranded (the aerial photograph also confirms the length of the ship), at a distance of approx. 300m from the coast (at the nearest point), with the bow facing southeast towards the entrance of the Gulf (pic. 3,4).
At this location the “M/V Vettor Pisani” remained until 1951 when it was refloated and towed to Italy where it was repaired to travel the seas again (fig. 5,6). Despite being destroyed by torpedoes, bombs, fire and dynamite and the long abandonment, the ship was modern enough and in relatively good condition to be left to rot, but also stranded in shallow water that could facilitate basic repairs to take it to the shipyard. Finally, after 20 years of service the ship retired in 1971 and was scraped.
The shipwreck today
What can be found today are scattered debris at a depth of only 10m, including a large number of metal barrels, batteries, parts of motorcycles, etc. all covered by sediment agglomerates. However, the most remarkable and perhaps useful for the confirmation of their destination and consequently of their origin, is a steel chain net composed of interconnected rings (pic. 7,8).
According to the “Net and boom defenses, Ordnance pamphlet 636A, 24 June 1944, U.S. Navy”, this configuration is typical for torpedo net (Type“T”net, Torpedo) (pic. 9), which were either installed in the port (suspended on floats, in a continuous barrier or partial barriers), or directly on a ship (suspended on horizontal booms, around the perimeter of the boat). The principle of operation is the following: The small cross section of a torpedo combined with its high speed exerts momentarily concentrated force on a single point, so each ring must be relatively small in diameter (about 40 cm) in order to intercept the object trying to penetrate but also attain a strong connection with the rest around it so the energy of the torpedo can be absorbed by a group of links (hence the lower end of the net was free to facilitate rotation around the horizontal axis and to diffuse the energy more efficiently). Another element of its particular usefulness was the anti-torpedo net’s ability to provide protection against aerial torpedoes, while the anti-submarine net only prevented the entry of such into an anchorage.
The above remarks make sense if we consider the destination of the ship that was Tobruk with its large natural harbour, which had just been occupied by Rommel (Deutsches Afrikakorps – DAK) a mere month ago. He was also already preparing a new offensive east into Egypt therefore this would serve him as an advanced resupply port but at the same time in close proximity to enemy naval and air forces. The Italians also had the recent traumatic experience from the raid on Taranto in November 1940, when the shortage of anti-torpedo nets (they were only 4 km installed instead of the 13 km required) led to severe damages to battleships from British aerial torpedoes.

Tilemachos Beriatos

CMAS 3 star Diver, PSS Technical Diver
Research 2012-2017

Pictures:

MV Vettor Pisani on flames

1. Vettor Pisani on flames (“Navi mercantili perdute”, Rolando Notarangelo e Gian Paolo Pagano, USMM)

Delfino in support of Vettor Pisani

2. The vessel Delfino in support of Vettor Pisani (Pietro Berti, naviearmatori.net)

Vettor Pisani grounded off the coast, Lixuri Kefalonia

3. Vettor Pisani grounded off the coast, Kefalonia (photograph Mike Georgatos)

Vettor Pisani grounded off the coast, Kefalonia aerial photograph

4. Vettor Pisani grounded off the coast, Kefalonia (aerial photographs 1945, Hellenic Geographical Service)

Vettor Pisani during repair in Monfalcone 1951

5. Vettor Pisani during repair in Monfalcone 1951 (Giorgio Parodi, naviearmatori.net)

Vettor Pisani after repair 1951

6. Vettor Pisani after repair 1951 (Ferruzzi-Venezia via Giuseppe Boato)

Metal barrels and wheels at Vettor Pisani debris field

7. Metal barrels and wheels (dive at the debris field 8-2010, Tilemachos Beriatos)

Metal torpedo net at Vettor Pisani debris field

8. Metal torpedo net (dive at the debris field 8-2010, Tilemachos Beriatos)

Rigging torpedo net (US Navy)

9. Rigging torpedo net (Bureau of Ordnance, US Navy)

On January 5, 2016, a fire destroyed two luxury yachts at the Marmaris Marina in Turkey. The news were with no significance to all but those familiar with the world and history of the Superyachts. These knew it was a real disaster: One of the two yachts destroyed was “The One”, that is considered probably the most beautiful Superyacht of all time, and beyond argument the one with the greatest influence on the design of these vessels. But in reality it was a reproduction of the original, and history could have been different, had it not been for a severe storm many years ago in southwestern Kefalonia! But let’s start from the beginning ..

This story begins in 1961 when Austrian billionaire Helmut Horten, passionate about sea and the yachts (when other tycoons of this era such as Aristolelis Onassis prioritized luxury), after owning Carinthia I and II earlier, had delivered from the French shipyard Chantiers Navals de l’Esterel the 25m Carinthia III, a classic yacht (as if starring in a James Bond movie!) that still sails in Greek seas under another name and owner. The 42 meter Carinthia IV from the same shipyard would follow, a beautiful and fast boat that would perished due to a fire in 1981 in Greece! These two yachts enhanced Horten’s desire for a unique boat, well ahead of its time. He trusted for the overall design the person that would influence the modern superyacht design more than any man, the legendary Jon Bannenberg!

Thousands of texts have been written and not only from nautical magazines, about this charismatic designer, called by Vanity Fair in 2018  “The Godfather of Modern Yacht Design”. For decades he was considered the most important designer of superyachts, being responsible for over 200 designs (including the Carinthias and his masterpiece Limitless which also belongs to the 10 most beautiful superyachts of all time ..). Bannenberg changed the world of mega yachts forever with his designs and influence. Until its time, yacht design was essentially a refinement and improvement of older models and an attempt to fit into the designs of the yachts the luxuries demanded by the owners as well as their ideas and expectations for the appearance of the boats. Ever since Horten commissioned Bannemberg to design Carinthia V, things would never be the same again!

Until the moment Bannenberg lifted the pencil to draw the lines of Carinthia V,yacht design did not really exist as a distinct occupation. Naval architects designed what they hoped were efficient and good-looking hulls and left the shipyard to complete the interior. Bannenberg made art his starting point, and sought to design every feature of a yacht from the exterior down to the doorknobs to achieve a completely consistent result. “Jon was building palaces,” said Dick van Lent of the Feadship Yard in the Netherlands. “Others were building boats.” Bannenberg himself put it less regally: “If you cannot make love in comfort on a boat that cost millions, what the hell is the point?” he told Vogue in 1970.

Horten wanted a much bigger fast yacht this time and went to Lürssen of Bremen shipyards, which at the time built mainly warships such as the 42 meter Jaguar Class patrol boats, capable of 40 knots. These were not planing hulls but slim, semi-displacement ones with high-powered diesel engines. It was no surprise, therefore, that the yacht Lürssen proposed was long and slim and looked rather like a fast warship. With a narrow beam, a lot of length was needed to provide enough accommodation space, and the overall length came to an impressive 68 meters. Bannenberg’s contribution was to integrate the whole design so that the drama of the long, slim hull was emphasized to the maximum. The sheer line runs the full length of the hull without interruption, and bow and stern slope forward to give an impression of urgency. The front of the superstructure is drawn as a sweeping curve. All the design elements of Carinthia V are simple and strong, and distracting details are avoided. Satellite domes, for instance, are placed well aft on an arch rather than on top of the wheelhouse or on the mast. As soon as you look at Carinthia, it is obvious that one hand has been responsible for the whole vessel from overall concept down to the smallest detail. Bannenberg was not given full responsibility for the interior because the owner’s wife, Heidi, favored using blond timbers and strongly colored rugs to create the Norwegian wood’ look that was popular at the time.

Carinthia V was a boat really coming out of a futuristic fairy tale: The most modern, fashionable and impressive of a line of yachts, owned by a yacht-passionate billionaire, designed perhaps by the greatest superyacht designer of all time, with a concept and lines unseen by yacht world until it launched, seen a beautiful boat with an interior that would embarrass Manhattan’s most chic penthouse! In a manner, one could say that Carinthia V was the Titanic of superyachts. In fact, its fate was similar and strange, though fortunately less tragic: on her maiden cruise in the Mediterranean encountered a severe thunderstorm near the southwestern coast of Kefalonia. Modern navigation aids were not available at that time, and bad weather wasn’t making things easier to navigate the boat with the  available maps safely around the infamous Kakava Shoals. Like countless other boats over the centuries, Carinthia V hit an uncharted reef and sank just off the coast of Skala Kefalonia, on November 1, 1971, fortunately without casualties.

Perhaps the most beautiful superyacht of all time, and arguably the most influential in naval design, is resting since on the Kefalonian seabed. Carithia V had come so close to perfection that when Horten called Bannenberg next morning he asked him to build exactly an identical replacement that would become Carinthia VI. The only change Bannemberg made was to increase the overall length by two meters and put in extra watertight bulkheads to prevent a recurrence of the sinking. Even to this detail the siblings Carinthia V and VI have almost a similar story to RMS Titanic and HMHS Britannic, that was slightly larger and with more watertight bulkheadsthan the tragically famous Titanic.So Carinthia VI was mend to steal the glory of V, but as it had a long career, immortalized the fame of its creators. The flames ended Carinthia’s VI career under the new name The One and one would say met the fate of Carinthia IV and V in the same corner of the Mediterranean. Since then, Carinthia V wreck, the last specimen of this naval era rests in the sea of Kefalonia.

Following down the shot line, eyes try to distinguish Carinthia’s silhouette in the endless blue. Astonishingly, the 70 m vessel blends very efficiency with the seabed! However,  soon the elegant, slim lines of the vessel make their appearance and the sense of awe and admiration cannot be easily described. Unfortunately the vessel is turned upside down. The elegant superstructure has been crushed under the weight of the hull but much of it can be seen on the right side, with the typical “grille” of the frond lounge visible. Same thing for the speedboat that was nested on the upper aft deck. The rudders of the boat as well as the propeller, although partially covered with nets, bare the signs of impact to the reefs of the area. The devastating impact to the reef along the hull that the blow that caused the sinking can be seen. Moving on to the bow it is amazing how “sharp” the bottom of the hull looks but also the excellent condition of the wreck considering it spent nearly 50 years at the bottom of the sea. A huge spiny starfish (Marthasterias glacialis) is next to one of the bow thrusters close to the stem that descents at a sharp angle to the bottom ten meters deeper.

Limited bottom time at this depth brings dive to an end. Reaching the shot line we take another look at this historic shipwreck before we start ascent and switching gasses. We did carry only a small action camera as the main objective was to investigate the wreck so photos are not that good. However the entire Blue Manta Diving Team is looking forward to the next visit to explore of this magnificent shipwreck with the impressive story that rests in the blue waters of Kefalonia.

Perhaps the top WW II wreck dive in Mediterranean, British Overseas Patrol submarine HMS/M Perseus, (N36) lies virtually intact on the sandy bottom, at 52 meters depth, about a mile off the south coast of Kefalonia.

Perseus submarine is not only among the most impressive wreck dives a diver can experience, but has an amazing history as well. The vessel was on combat patrol in December 1941, and while cruising at the surface at night hit an Italian naval mine and sunk. From the crew of 59 only one, the Royal Navy leading stoker John Capes managed a daredevil escape from a depth no one has attempted before, swam his way to Katelios and with the aid of locals escaped capture from Italian and German occupation forces and finally transferred in Turkey. While legendary in Royal Navy, almost nobody believed his adventure until in 1997 a team of Greek divers located the submarine and verified details of his described escape.

The divers approaching the submarine encounter a magnificent vessel 88 meters long, with a large conning tower, the ship’s gun and the rear hutch still open indicating the escape route of John Capes, while a look in the interior is possible. Among other things, the torpedo tubes and the ship’s propellers and rudder are visible.

The submarine is practically an artificial reef and colorful sponges, big groupers, small fish and aquatic creatures take shelter here, while predators like amberjacks and snappers are frequent visitors.

Dive starts at the shot line that leads close to the conning tower and at around 25m depth the submarine is already visible. Leaving the shot line at around 35 m, and heading towards the bow, swimming at the side of the vessel and at a depth of 45 m, divers can see the devastating blow of the mine at port side and then the bow torpedo tubes, where at a depth of 48 m, Mark VIII torpedoes are ready to fire in their open tubes. On the way back towards the aft, divers overfly the wreck at around 44 m, observing hatches, winches and looking for groupers hiding within openings of the vessel, eventually reach the 4,9” gun and then the conning tower with the main hatch, periscopes and antenna. Further towards the aft, there is the still open escape hatch, that allows a look to the interior and the items inside, such as crates, machinery and even boots of the crew. Divers reaching the aft can see at a close distance the concrete anchorage of the sea mine and even descend bellow 45 m for a closer look to the rudders and propellers, where massive groupers, snappers and lobsters can also be found. The dive comes to an end heading smoothly towards the conning tower, where amberjacks usually prey on the schools of damselfish, to find the shot line and initiate the ascend and decompression stops.

The average depth or the dive is 40 m, while the max is 50, reserving the submarine for experienced and technical divers. The visibility is usually greater than 25m while temperature ranges between 18-24 C in summer months, depending on depth. Occasionally there may be strong currents close to the surface. Boat ride duration 15′.

Scuba Diving Kefalonia, Scuba Kefalonia

 

 

Infamous “Kakava” shoals are also an extended ancient wrecks site, once believed to be a submerged village. There is an abundance of amphorae, primarily from Roman era wrecks with at least one from 2nd century BC. Around the reef more evidence of ancient to modern day wrecks are present, such as steel ship parts and huge coal pieces, marking the resting place of an unknown steamboat.

The dive site is situated between the two main nesting beaches for Loggerhead sea turtles around Kefalonia “Kaminia” and “Skala”, so chances to catch sight of one looking for her next meal, are quite high.

Dive starts at the flat top of the shoal at 5m that could be the archetype of Mediterranean reef, with black and green sponges, brown seaweed and large schools of parrotfish and cow breams. Descending to the deepest part down to 12m, scattered pieces and blocks of smashed amphorae and metal relics from the ancient wreck become more and more abundant and among them brown meagres, groupers, scorpionfish and octopuses occupy every recess and crevice. Eventually coal pieces and metal remains mark the path towards the resting place of the unknown shipwreck and soon after divers reach the top of the reef where the ancient wreck crashed, and most intact amphorae can be found. Here, schools of damselfish hover against the current attracting predators such as snappers, Mediterranean barracudas and amberjacks. The return route to the boat is through peculiar rock formations, leftovers form the fragile rocky plate curved by forces of nature, and home to diverse marine life.

The average depth or the dive is 8 m, while the max is 12 m, appropriate for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 22-27 °C in summer months. Occasionally a weak surface current may be encountered. Boat ride duration 6′.

 

Scuba Diving Kefalonia, Scuba Kefalonia

 

Out of the Neptune’s seagrass meadows (“Posidonia oceanica”) a lone reef rises, a death trap to ancient vessels passing through the area. At least 2 of those wooden merchant ships once roaming the Mediterranean, have found their final resting place here, scattering their ballast stones, lead and bronze parts of their hull and rigging and scores of amphorae – their primary cargo, proving the area a puzzle to seamen through the ages.

On the underside of a long shallow rocky ridge, a small yet impressive underwater cave awaits to be explored. The dark chamber in the rock features two side-openings and one on the top acting as a skylight shedding ample light into the interior, rewarding the daring diver with spectacular views. Also a variety of fish and quite often

Dive starts on a sand patch at 7 m where wood parts of a sank fishing boat can be found and continues to the rocky ridge, with seagrass meadows on both sides, with schools of damselfish hover against the current attracting predators such as snappers and amberjacks. Soon the first and oldest wreck remains of many types and sizes of amphorae can be found, all the way to the entrance of the small cave.

Continuing along the rocky ridge at same depths, schools of parrotfish and cow breams are everywhere and a bit further down a massive stock of a stone anchor can be found, being the turning point towards the amphorae and metal relics of the second ancient wreck. A short cross over sandy and seagrass patches gives the chance to see all kinds of wrasses and perhaps Loggerhead sea turtles that are frequent visitors to the site and leads to a second rocky ridge where at its side the deepest part of the dive and usually schools of saddled breams along with groupers and morays can be found. Route along this ridge also leads back to the boat.

The average depth or the dive is 7 m, while the max is 12 m, appropriate for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 22-27 °C in summer months. Occasionally a weak surface current may be encountered. Boat ride duration 5′.

Scuba Diving Kefalonia, Scuba Kefalonia

There is no better spot for macro photographers to capture all the amazing micro flora and fauna of the Mediterranean. On the under-the-surface portion of the cliff walls, in the crevices and caves and within the same small extent of rock face, pseudo corals and all species of Mediterranean sponges can be found in a distracting variety and abundance.To add to the excitement, an old fishing boat wreck on the seagrass awaits divers to explore it! All together they create an ideal habitat for nudibranchs, moray eels, scorpion fish, blennies, gobies, wrasses, starfish and many more. Divers return again and again to capture colorful images one can hardly believe that belong in the Mediterranean .

Dive starts next to the rocky shore where a plateau at 5-6 m depth tops the walls bellow and follows a smooth slope descending to 16 m for a short cross over the Neptune’s seagrass that leads to the fishing boat wreck at 21 m. Among its remains and rusty pipes, nudibranchs, moray eels and octopuses can be found with snappers and amberjacks often visiting the area.  Upon return to the wall, the most impressively colored false corals, an abundance of sponges, ambushing morays, shy cardinal fish and graceful nudibranch occupy ever rock and crevice. Also, groupers, Triton’s trumpets and slipper lobsters are anything but a rare sight at the right time. The return starts with a smooth ascend to the edge of the wall, at 8-9 m depth, through schools of damselfish and cow breams, looking for more morays, and invasive, yet beautiful, lionfish and dive concludes with a safety stop on top of the plateau.

The average depth of the dive is 9 m, while the max is 21 m, appropriate for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 24-26 °C in summer months. Usually no surface currents are present. Boat ride duration 5′.

 

Scuba Diving Kefalonia, Scuba Kefalonia

Cape Kapros marks the northern tip of Skala’s coastline, and just around it one is at the doorstep of Kefalonia-Ithaca channel. The water movement and the occasional currents around the cape is as intriguing, and create a habitat for groupers, wrasses, breams, invasive lionfish, cardinal fish, nudibranch species on the rocks and sponges, whilst schools of bogues and damselfish feed against the current, just above the noticeable thermocline and attract predators like red snappers, blue runners and amberjacks. The cape has probably a turbulent past, as ancient merchant vessel anchors and broken amphorae lay scattered around.

Dive starts at 5 m and follows a smooth slope down to 16m where the first pieces of amphorae can be found, continuing to some rocks at 21 m where white groupers and morays can be found along and even more and diverse amphorae. Following the bottom of the rocky slope, it is a great inhabitant of dusky and gold blotch groupers and where the hunting ground for snappers is and more intriguing amphorae and ancient anchors can be found before return starts with an ascend at the mid of the slope at 10 m. Along this depth there are rocks that give shelter to bright red cardinal fish and their predators, the invasive lionfish and also the evidence of an ancient boat sinking here, as crashed amphorae and metal relics can be found. The way back towards the safety stop spot is through large schools of cow breams and graceful damselfish.

The average depth of the dive is 12 m, while the max is 32 m, appropriate for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 19-25 °C in summer months. Occasionally a moderate surface current may be encountered. Boat ride duration 7′.

 

Scuba Diving Kefalonia, Scuba Kefalonia

On the eastern boundaries of Kakava reefs, before water depth drops significantly, there is an area where Posidonia sea grass, rocks and sandy patches alternate. This is the place where colourful wrasses, brown meagres and all kinds of breams find shelter, whilst sea turtles and eagle rays are common visitors, but without a doubt the stars are the red snappers that are foraging around this alley, preying on schools of damselfish and parrotfish. This is probably the site more likely to spot a snapper especially from May to July, as they never fail divers in early morning dives.

The average depth of the dive is 16 m, while the max is 22 m, appropriate for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 23-25 °C in summer months. Occasionally a weak surface current may be encountered. Boat ride duration 7′.

 

Located at the northern extents of the Kakava reefs, this site is the most representative example of Mediterranean seafloor landscape and biodiversity in shallow coastal waters and provides excellent chances for u/w photographers. Collapsed caves and holes, along with meadows of Posidonia sea grass create the perfect environment for parrotfish, wrasses, gilt head breams, scorpion fish, young groupers and snappers. Around the reef fragments of ancient clay jars (“amphoras”) can be spotted, however the highlight of the site are the 12 enormous, probably Byzantine era anchors, presumably ditched by a ship struggling to escape crashing on the reef.

The average depth of the dive is 7 m, while the max is 12 m, suitable for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 22-27 °C in summer months. Occasionally a moderate surface current may be encountered. Boat ride duration 5′.

 

At the northern end of Skala beach, the rocky coastline provides an u/w landscape of walls and rockslides, which create an ideal habitat for most Mediterranean species. In this dive site, marked by the Cape Kapros lighthouse, boulders scattered among Posidonia seagrass provide a haven for all kinds of breams, wrasses, brown meagres and octopuses, especially when water temperature is below 23 °C, up to the end of June and again from early September. Huge schools of juvenile saddled sea breams and damselfish, along with often passing Loggerheard sea turtles, create scenery so rich that rarely can be matched by Mediterranean waters.

The average depth of the dive is 8 m, while the max is 17 m, appropriate for divers of all levels.

The usual visibility is 25 m and temperature ranges between 24-26 °C in summer months. Occasionally a weak surface current may be encountered. Boat ride duration 5′.